Measures the wind speed and transmits wind speed data to the
Lifts and rotates when wind is blown over them, causing the
rotor to spin. Most turbines have either two or three blades.
Stops the rotor mechanically, electrically, or hydraulically, in
Starts up the machine at wind speeds of about 8 to 16 miles per
hour (mph) and shuts off the machine at about 55 mph. Turbines do not
operate at wind speeds above about 55 mph because they may be damaged by
the high winds.
Furling works by decreasing the angle of attack, which reduces
the induced drag from the lift of the rotor, as well as the cross-section.
One major problem in designing wind turbines is getting the blades to
stall or furl quickly enough should a gust of wind cause sudden
acceleration. A fully furled turbine blade, when stopped, has the edge of
the blade facing into the wind. Loads can be reduced by making a
structural system softer or more flexible. This could be accomplished with
downwind rotors or with curved blades that twist naturally to reduce angle
of attack at higher wind speeds. These systems will be nonlinear and will
couple the structure to the flow field - thus, design tools must evolve to
model these non-linearities.
Standard modern turbines all
furl the blades in high winds. Since furling requires acting against the
torque on the blade, it requires some form of pitch angle control, which
is achieved with a slewing drive. This drive precisely angles the blade
while withstanding high torque loads. In addition, many turbines use
hydraulic systems. These systems are usually spring-loaded, so that if
hydraulic power fails, the blades automatically furl. Other turbines use
an electric servomotor for every rotor blade. They have a small
battery-reserve in case of an electric-grid breakdown. Small wind turbines
(under 50 kW) with variable-pitching generally use systems operated by
centrifugal force, either by flyweights or geometric design, and employ no
electric or hydraulic controls.
In conventional wind turbines, the blades spin a shaft that is
connected through a gearbox to the generator. The gearbox converts the
turning speed of the blades 15 to 20 rotations per minute for a large,
one-megawatt turbine into the faster 1,800 revolutions per minute that the
generator needs to generate electricity.
Integrated Control Unit
The ICU takes care of the device integrity by parameter
monitoring and surveying tasks.
Integrated Control Unit (ICU)
Safety of Machinery standard
This International Standard specifies basic terminology,
principles and a methodology for achieving safety in the design of
machinery. It specifies principles of risk assessment and risk reduction
to help designers in achieving this objective.
Safety of Machinery standard (EN
EN 12100, ISO 12100, or IEC 12100
Safety of machinery directive IEC 12100
Machinery standard, machinery
A machine that captures the force of the wind. Called a Wind
Generator when used to produce electricity. Called a Windmill when used to
crush grain or pump water.
Rotation parallel to the ground. A wind generator Yaws to face
winds coming from different directions.